04/Mar/2016: Meeting of G4 Director-Generals in New Delhi
30/Oct/2015: General Assembly holds its annual plenary meeting under item entitled "Question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council and related matters". 59 delegations took the floor, among which 21 supported the expansion of the Council in both categories of members.
23/Oct/2015: In a letter addressed to all Member States, the President of the 70th General Assembly, Mogens Lykketoft, announces the appointment of H.E. Ms. Sylvie Lucas, Permanent Representative of Luxembourg as Chair of the Intergovernmental Negotiations. In the letter, the PGA stated he was confident that the forthcoming negotiations will build on the momentum and the progress made during the 69th session, in particular the positions and proposals made by Member States reflected in the text and its annex circulated by the President of the General Assembly in his letter dated 31 July 2015.
26/Sep/2015: Summit of the G4 countries (Brazil, Germany, India and Japan) on the margins of the 70th Session of the UN General Assembly. The Heads of State and Government of the four countries reiterated the high priority given by their governments to reform the UNSC and their commitment to continue to work together towards this common goal. The leaders expressed determination to redouble their efforts towards securing concrete outcomes during the 70th session of the General Assembly.
14/Sep/2015: Decision 69/560, proposed by the President of the 69th UNGA, is adopted by consensus, establishing the continuation of Intergovernmental Negotiations on Security Council reform in the informal plenary of the General Assembly at its 70th Session, building on the informal meetings held during its sixty-ninth session, as well as the positions of and proposals made by Member States reflected in the text and its Annex circulated by the President of the General Assembly in his letter dated 31 July 2015.
31/Jul/2015: President of the 69th Session of the General Assembly, Sam Kutesa, circulated a text produced by the Chair, product of Member States submissions and discussions in the IGN during 69th session, as the outcome of a consultative, inclusive and transparent process, and stresses that the document represents a sound basis upon which Member States can engage in text-based negotiations during the next phase of IGN.
10/Jul/2015: Meeting of G4 Director-Generals in Brasilia
21-22/May/2015: Italy convenes the meeting "Pathways for a more inclusive and Accountable Security Council", held in Rome, to provide an informal exchange platform of views on the principles underlying the reform of UNSC.
26-27/Feb/2015: Meeting of G4 Director-Generals in Berlin
12/ Nov/2014: General Assembly holds its annual plenary meeting under item entitled "Question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council and related matters". 48 delegations took the floor.
10-11/Nov/2014: The seminar "Setting the Progressive United Nations Peace and Security agenda: Searching for New Narratives" is held in Hague, organized by the Foreign Ministry of the Netherlands and the research institutes Igarapé (RJ) and Clingendael (Hague).
Nov/10/2014: In a letter addressed to all Member states, the President of the 69th General Assembly, Sam Kutesa, announces the appointment of the Permanent Representative of Jamaica, Ambassador Courtenay Rattray, as the new Chair of the Intergovernmental Negotiations.
Sep/25/2014: G4 Ministerial Meeting in the margins of the 69th Session of the United Nations General Assembly. The Ministers reiterated their common vision of a reformed Security Council and voiced their concern that, 70 years after the foundation of the United Nations, 50 years after the first and only time that the Security Council was reformed, nearly 15 years after the Millennium Summit and 10 years after the 2005 World Summit – when the world leaders called for an early reform of the UNSC – discussions are still at stalemate. Therefore, they invited all their counterparts to engage in all possible efforts to achieve, by September 2015, a concrete outcome on a process that has dragged on for over twenty years.
Feb/12/2014: The seminar "United Nations Security Council Reform: Perspectives and Prospects" was held in New Delhi, organized by the Ministry of External Affairs of India and the "Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis" (IDSA), bringing together Indian representatives from academia, civil society and the media, members of the diplomatic corps and G-4 Director Generals. As a follow-up of the seminar "Current Challenges to International Peace and Security: The Need to Reform the United Nations Security Council" (Praia do Forte, 26/4/2013), the event provided an opportunity for discussing the need for greater involvement of public opinion in the debate on UNSC reform and the urgency to achieve concrete outcomes in the reform process by the 70th anniversary of the United Nations.
Dec/10/2013: President of the 68th Session of the General Assembly, John Ashe, conveyed to all member States, through the Chair, the non-paper produced by the Advisory Group, recommending its use as a guide to preparing a programme of work for subsequent meetings of the Intergovernmental Negotiations.
Nov/7-8/2013: General Assembly holds its annual plenary meeting under Item 123 entitled "Question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council and related matters". 90 delegations take the floor (a number considerably higher than 48 that took the floor on the same occasion last year). Among them, 56 indicated their support for expansion in both categories, permanent and non-permanent seats.
Oct/22/2013: In a letter addressed to all Member states, the President of the General Assembly, John Ashe, announces the reappointment of Afghan Ambassador Zahir Tanin as Chair of the Intergovernmental Negotiations and the creation of an Advisory Group to himself. The Group is comprised of the Permanent Representatives of Brazil, Belgium, Liechtenstein, Papua New Guinea, San Marino and Sierra Leone and has the task of producing a basis for the start of the Intergovernmental Negotiations that reflects the ideas put forward in the negotiations so far, as well as identifies the available options.
Sep/2013: General Debate of the 68th Session of the General Assembly - 82 Member states mentioned the issue of UN reform. 72 made specific reference to the reform of the Security Council. Chile, Portugal, United Kingdom and East Timor specifically refer to Brazil in this context. Many delegations referred to the Syrian crisis as an evidence of the Security Council's inability to carry out its duties and responsibilities towards preserving international peace and security.
Sep/26/2013: G4 Ministerial Meeting in the margins of the 68th Session of the United Nations General Assembly. The Ministers reiterated their common vision of a reformed Security Council and highlighted the need to intensify efforts to translate the existing agreement into concrete outcomes at the latest by 2015 (70 years since the creation of the United Nations and 10 years after the 2005 World Summit). They also emphasized the importance of enhancing dialogue and outreach with other groups, especially with African countries and CARICOM members, and recognized the need for greater involvement of civil society in the discussions on the issue. The Ministers also reiterated that, given the overwhelming support by member states for an expansion of the Security Council in both categories of membership, permanent and non-permanent, this should be a key parameter in the negotiation process among member states.
Aug/29/2013: Oral Decision 67/561, proposed by the President of the 67th UNGA, is adopted by consensus, establishing the continuation of Intergovernmental Negotiations on Security Council reform in the informal plenary of the General Assembly at its sixty-eighth session.
Jul/25/2013: The Permanent Representative (PR) of Saint Lucia, Ambassador Menissa Rambally, is appointed as the new spokesperson of the L.69, replacing the Permanent Representative of Saint Vincent and the Granadines PR, Ambassador Camilo Gonsalves who has concluded his mission in New York.
Jun/27/2013: The second meeting of the ninth round of Intergovernmental Negotiations is personally led by the PGA. The Chair was not present. The meeting was called for addressing “possible convergence areas among different reform models” (a theme that had already been proposed by the Chair). As in April’s interchange, the meeting is limited to the repetition of well-known positions and comprehensive assessments on the next steps. Most of the delegations express support to the Chair.
May/02/2013: The ACT (Accountability, Coherence and Transparency) group is officially created, coordinated by Switzerland and integrated by other 20 countries from different regions (Saudi Arabia, Austria, Chile, Costa Rica, Slovenia, Estonia, Finland, Gabon, Hungary, Ireland, Jordan, Liechtenstein, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Portugal, Sweden, Tanzania – as observer – and Uruguay), brought together by the purpose of reforming the UNSC’s working methods. The group will build upon the efforts made by Small-5, defending the improvement of the working methods employed by the agency.
Apr/26/13: The seminar “Current Challenges to International Peace and Safety: the Need to Reform the United Nations Security Council” was held at Praia do Forte. The Seminar brought together the Chair, G-4 representatives, and representatives from the Missions to the United Nations of Serra Leoa, South Africa and Guatemala, besides national and foreign representatives of research centers, universities, civil society and press. The seminar was useful for making the participants aware of the urgency and inevitability of reforming the UNSC. At the occasion, discussions were held about the need of a deeper involvement of the global public opinion in discussions on the subject, as well as the inseparability of subjects that integrate the agenda of peace and safety and the political architecture of global governance.
Apr/16/2013: After an eight-month gap, the ninth round of Intergovernmental Negotiations was launched. A large number of delegations requested the elaboration, by the Chair, of a concise document to serve as basis for the negotiations, as well as the promotion of debate on the different reform models. Several delegations mentioned 2015 as a possible landmark for consolidating advances in the process.
Feb/26/2013: CARICOM circulates, on a restricted basis, in New York, a draft resolution project (discussed in the group´s last Summit – Haiti, Feb/18-19) with similar language to the one from L.69-C10, to be submitted to informal consultations between L.69 members, the African countries, and the Chair of the Intergovernmental Negotiations for posterior tabling.
Feb/21 and 22/2013: A meeting was held, in Freetown, between the Chancellors and the Permanent Representatives of C-10 countries to the UN and the African Union, to discuss the last developments in the reform process, in particular the “common resolution project L.69-C-10". It was the first time that such a meeting was not held on the sidelines of an Ordinary Summit of the AU.
Feb/19/2013: The subject of the UNSC reform is discussed at the CARICOM Summit. The Joint Communiqué presents the main elements defended by the Caribbean members on the debates and offers an urgent appeal for advances in the reform.
Feb/4/2013: The Ministerial Meeting “New Approaches for Reforming the Security Council” was held in Rome, organized by Italy and Spain. The Chair and 68 countries were present (around 20 at the ministerial level). France and United Kingdom clearly offered support to the G-4 at the event.
Jan/ 27 and 28/2013: Summit of the AU in Adis Abeba. The adopted decision (regarding the last C-10 Report) welcomes the progress reached through efforts towards dialogue and the construction of alliances with other interest groups for the achievement of a common African position, as well as encourages the intensification of these efforts.
Jan/11/2013: Responses to the Chair's Letter: The L69 informs about the negotiations with the C10. The G4, C10, UfC, China and Russia reaffirm their previous positions. C10, UfC and China criticize the REV 3. The G4 emphasizes its support to the Chair´s work, as well as the need for a concise negotiating document. It also supports the convening of a High Level Event.
Dec/20/2012: In a L69 and C-10 experts meeting, consensus is achieved on a “common resolution project”, which brings the L69 position closer to the points defended by the C-10.
Dec/17/2012: Ambassador Camilo Gonsalves, Saint Vicent and the Granadines’ PR, is chosen as the new spokesperson of the L.69 group (replacing Ambassador Raymond Wolfe, PR of Jamaica).
Nov/15/2012: General Assembly holds its annual plenary meeting under item entitled "Question of equitable representation on and increase in the membership of the Security Council and related matters". The persistence of the division among the Member States on the future of the Intergovernmental Negotiations becomes evident, especially regarding the role to be performed by the Chair. On that occasion, the main negotiating groups restated their positions. The G4 countries showed their support to the Chair and to the recommendations presented at the end of the round of Intergovernmental Negotiations. The debate was characterized by a reduced participation of the African countries.
Nov/9/2012: In a letter directed to all Member States, the PGA informs that he decided to reappoint Ambassador Zahir Tanin, Permanent Representative of Afghanistan, to the position of Chair of the Intergovernmental Negotiations on the reform of the UNSC. The letter highlights the transparency and predictability needed for leading the process.
Sep/2012: General Debate of the 67th session of the UNGA – 81 Member States mentioned the subject of the UNSC reform (21 less than in 2011), some of them, only in the context of wider allusions to the need of reforming the United Nations as a whole. The numbers seems to reflect the perception that the process does not advance. France makes a reference to the G4. Besides France, Portugal specifically refers to Brazil. The UNSG and the PGA do not mention the subject.
Sep/26/2012: Ministerial meeting of the UfC on the sidelines of the General Debate of the UNGA 67th session (organized by Italy), with the participation of Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Spain, Indonesia, Malta, Mexico, Pakistan, San Marino and Turkey. The group stressed the urgent need of flexibility and commitment by all Member States. It expressed concern that fragmented or partial initiatives may hinder advance in the process and harm the negotiations. It also restated its commitment to finding an exhaustive and negotiated solution which can count with as large a support as possible from the Member States.
Sep/25/2012: G4 Ministerial Meeting on the sidelines of the General Debate of the UNGA 67th session. The Ministers agreed on the evaluation that the UNSC has been unable to deal with the threats and challenges related to the international peace and safety in the world today. They agreed on the need to intensify the efforts for changing the status quo established over 60 years ago. They recalled that the expansion in both categories counts with the support of the overwhelming majority of the UN’s Member States and that this must be further reflected in the negotiating process. They expressed their determination to act with the purpose of injecting political dynamism to the reform process, also aiming towards the organization of a high level meeting on the reform of the UNSC, in accordance with Chair Tanin’s recommendation. There was also renewed support to the Brazilian initiative of more dialogue and involvement of the group with the civil society, research centers, media and universities on the CSNU (outreach). The meeting made it possible to reaffirm the group´s unity and commitment to the purpose of advancing the UNSC reform process.
Sep/13/2012: The verbal decision proposed by the PGA during the 66th UNGA is adopted by consensus and establishes the continuation, during the next UNGA’s session, of the Intergovernmental Negotiations on the reform of the UNSC. The decision only takes note of the Chair’s recommendations. It does not, however, make reference to the recommendations as basis for the future negotiations.
Jul/25/2012: Ambassador Zahir Tanin, PR of Afghanistan and Chair of the negotiations on the UNSC reform, sends a letter to the Member States with an assessment of the eighth round and suggestions for the next steps. Among the proposals, it is highlighted that the Chair should be in charge of presenting a concise negotiating text. The convening of a "high level” meeting is also mentioned.
Jul/2012: 19th Summit of the African Union (Adis Abeba). Decision on the 11th Report of the Committee of Ten on the reform of the UNSC reiterates the terms decided in the last Summit, reaffirming the strong commitment of the group to the Ezulwini Consensus and reiterating the need of the African unity in all the issues related to the reform process of the UNSC.
Jul/2012: The 11th report from the “Committee of the Ten” (C-10) on the reform process of the UNSC was released: it highlights that the dialogue process with the L.69 group depends on that group formally modifying its position and recognizing the right to veto of future new permanent members. India informally indicates that it is able to meet this demand.
Jul/2/2012: UNGA’s “balance” session called by the Chair of the negotiations on the reform of the UNSC did not obtain concrete results: most of the Member States limited themselves to restating their traditional positions. G-4, UfC, L.69, and C-10 reaffirmed their positions and defended the start of substantive negotiations. The African Group indicates its disposal for negotiating with the L.69.
May/2012: Tabling and further withdrawal of Small-5 resolution project on the UNSC’s working methods.
Apr/10/2012: At an informal meeting of UNGA’s plenary convened for discussing the UNSC’s reform proposal presented by the “Committee of the Ten” (African Group), 51 Member States took the floor. 35 showed support (African countries, G-4, L.69, China) and 15 (mainly UfC members and 4 of the UNSC’s permanent members) adopted neutral position. Colombia was the only one that criticized the proposal.
Mar/2012: “Small 5” (S-5) presents new version of the resolution project on UNSC’s working methods.
Mar/13/2012: At an informal meeting of the UNGA’s plenary for discussing UNSC’s reform proposal presented by the L.69 group, 50 countries took the floor. 31 showed support, 16 (mainly UfC members) criticized the proposal and 3 maintained a neutral position. Members of the UfC highlighted the supposed “ambivalence” of the L.69 and G-4 regarding the right to veto.
Feb/2012: 19th Summit of the African Union (Adis Abeba). Decision 409 on the 10th Report of the Committee of the Ten on the reform of the UNSC: reaffirms the Ezulwini Consensus and the Sirte Declaration, which encompass the common position of Africa on the matter. It also highlights the need for Africa to keep a coherent position and requests that the C-10 intensifies its efforts to defend and promote the common African position.
Feb/21/2012: At an informal meeting of the UNGA’s plenary for discussing UNSC’s reform proposal presented by the Uniting for Consensus (UfC) group, 44 countries took the floor. 12 manifested in favor, 25 criticized the proposal (specially the idea that the UNSC expansion should happen exclusively in the category of non permanent members) and 7 adopted a neutral position.
Jan/26/2012: At an informal meeting of the UNGA’s plenary for discussing the short resolution project presented by the G-4, 55 countries took the floor. 31 spoke in favor of the proposal, 17 criticized either the proposal or the selective treatment of subjects and 7 adopted a neutral position. Among the P-5, the United Kingdom and France supported the project, USA and Russia adopted a neutral position and China criticized it.
Dec/2011: In a letter to the Member States, the Chair informs about the meeting schedule for continuing the eighth round of negotiations in the UNGA’s informal plenary during the first semester of 2012.Tanin proposes that separate meetings are held for discussing each one of the five papers received on initiatives/comments presented by the Member States in 2011. He requests that the delegations react to the presentations and indicate whether or not they support the elements proposed by the different groups.
Sep/2011: The third G-4 ministerial meeting occurs, lead by Brazil. The results of the “brief” resolution project initiative are assessed. The position of the group in favor of its engagement towards the UNSC expansion in both categories was reiterated, based on the majority support of the Member States.
Jul/18/2011: Mexico hosts an informal event on the UNSC reform. An attempt can be sensed, by the UfC, to avoid the consolidation of a majority position in favor of the Council´s expansion in both categories.
Jun/2011: The G-4 addresses a letter to the PGA, in which it requests that the expressive support to the expansion of the UNSC in both categories, consubstantiated in around 80 manifestations of support until that moment, be taken into consideration and used as basis for the negotiations. At that time, the G-4 highlighted that the campaign for the resolution project shall be continued and that the existing options for the future remained open.
May/12-13/2011: Qatar promotes workshop on the UNSC reform, headed by the Afghan PR, Ambassador Zahir Tanin, and by the President of the 66th UNGA, Abdul Aziz al Nassir.
May/2011: Italy convenes a meeting in Rome on the Reform of the Global Governance and Reform of the UNSC. Around 120 delegations participate at the event, from which 30 have been represented at the ministerial level. On that occasion, Mexico presented a new reform proposal: 10 new non-permanent seats, with mandates of 5 years and possibility of reelection and an alteration of the current non-permanent seats´ mandates from two years to four years.
Mar/2/2011: First meeting of the seventh round of Intergovernmental Negotiations. The main divergences among the Member States are concentrated on two points: the possibility that the new revised text be the basis for the negotiations and the Chair´s role as leader of the process.
Feb/2011: New G-4 ministerial meeting, which had as its main result the decision of consulting the Member States on the resolution project of the UNGA, which proposes the expansion of the UNSC in the permanent and non-permanent members categories and the improvement of the Council’s working methods (“brief” resolution project).
Jan/2011: The Chair circulates a new revised version of the negotiating text (Rev 3). The document partially meets the request of the “L.69” group regarding the presentation, by the Chair, of a concise text containing the main elements being negotiated and the options that count with the largest support. In fact, the Rev3 included summary of the proposals presented by the Member States. The document did not mention, however, the level of support for each proposal.
Dec/2010: Beginning of the sixth round of Intergovernmental Negotiations. During the first meeting, the L.69 group and other countries requested that the Chair elaborates a concise text with the main elements and options under negotiation. The initiative generates opposition from the UfC, Russia and China.
Nov/2010: In a speech to the Indian Parliament, President Obama declares strong support to the entrance of India in an expanded Security Council. On that occasion, Obama stated that the United Nations search for an "efficient, effective, credible and legitimate" United Nations and that "in the years ahead, I look forward to a reformed United Nations Security Council that includes India as a permanent member".
Sep/2010: Chancellors from G-4 meet on the sidelines of the 65th UNGA General Debate for the first time since 2005.
Jun/2010: Beginning of the fifth round of Intergovernmental Negotiations. Member States accept the negotiating text as the basis for the negotiations.
May/2010: Tanin discloses the first version of the negotiating text, with 29 pages.
Mar/2010: The Chair informs that he will meet the request formulated by the 140 Member States and invites the sending of positions and proposals on the five key-subjects for the elaboration of a text that will serve as the basis for the negotiations.
Dec/2009: Beginning of the fourth round of Intergovernmental Negotiations. G-4 and South Africa collected 140 signatures for the letter, sent to the Chair, requesting that he prepares a basic text for the negotiations.
Sep/2009: Closure of the OEWG activities and release of presidential note A/63/960, which compiles the letters sent by the Chair during the three first rounds of negotiations.
Sep/2009: Beginning of the third round of Intergovernmental Negotiations.
Jul/2009: Presidents Lula and Sarkozy publish article in which they ask for a comprehensive reform of the UNSC, which contemplates a “broader role” for developing countries such as Brazil and India.
Jul/2009: France and United Kingdom reiterate their support to the G-4, but they propose the provisional reform of the UNSC through which, during a time period to be established, States would occupy seats with a longer duration mandate, in principle, during that entire period. At the end of this period, it could be decided to convert such seats in places for permanent members.
May/2009: Beginning of the second round of Intergovernmental Negotiations based on a document prepared by the Afghan PR Zahir Tanin, Chair of the Intergovernmental Negotiations.
Apr/2009: Colombia and Italy present, on behalf of the UfC, a proposal that foresees the possibility that non-permanent members remain for a longer period than the current two years after a consecutive reelection, or the creation of longer duration seats (3 to 5 years) without immediate reelection.
Apr/2009: Presentation of new proposal from “Small 5” on the reform of the UNSC’s working methods reform.
Mar/2009: Presentation of French-British proposal for the UNSC’s provisional reform.
Feb/2009: Beginning of the first round of Intergovernmental Negotiations on the reform of the UNSC.
Feb/2009: Italy sponsors meeting in Rome on the reform of the UNSC.
Sep/2008: UNGA adopts Decision 62/557, which establishes the beginning of the Intergovernmental Negotiations on the reform based on the position and proposal from Member States up to February 28th, 2009. It establishes the UNGA’s informal plenary as a negotiating forum.
Sep/2008: Slovenia presents new proposal of UNSC’s reform, contemplating the creation of new permanent seats and a new category of seats.
Aug/2008: Open debate on the reform of the Council’s working methods occurs at the UNSC, for the first time since 1994.
Mar/2008: France and United Kingdom reiterate their support to the G-4 and suggest openness to a UNSC’s reform through which, during a time period to be established, there would be seats with renewable mandates of a longer duration. At the end of this period, the conversion of such seats in places for permanent members could be decided.
Sep/2007: President Bush shows support to the reform of the UNSC which includes, as permanent members, Japan and “other countries”.
Sep/2007: By its decision 61/561, UNGA authorizes the performance of Intergovernmental Negotiations on the reform of the UNSC.
Apr/2007: The first report of the Chair at the 61st UNGA’s suggests the existence of openness from Member States to discussing an “intermediate” reform and identifies the possible modalities of such a reform.
Mar/2007: The President of the UNGA indicates five Chairs for the reform of the UNSC.
Mar/2006: “Small 5” Group (Singapore, Jordan, Costa Rica, Liechtenstein and Switzerland) presents resolution project A/60/L.49, which foresees reform exclusively in the working methods of the UNSC.
Jan/2006: The resolution projects from the AU and G-4 (without support from Japan) are presented once again.
Sep/2005: 2005 high level World Summit calls upon a timely reform of the UNSC.
Aug/2005: AU's extraordinary Summit, in Adis Abeba, does not endorse the London agreement and establishes the Committee of the Ten Heads of State and Government for promotion of the common African position (C-10).
Jul/2005: In London, the G-4 ministerial meeting with AU representatives agrees on the joint proposal of reforming the UNSC, where Africa would make its position on the veto more flexible and the G-4 would accept the creation of one additional non-permanent seat to the number foreseen in the resolution project A/59/L.64. The new seat would be shared among Africa, Asia, Latin America and Caribbean.
Jul/2005: The Uniting for Consensus Group, new name of the Coffee Club, presents the resolution project A/59/L.68, with the creation of ten new non-permanent seats.
Jul/2005: The African Union presents the resolution project A/59/L.67, similar to the G-4, but with one extra non-permanent seat and the extension of the veto to the new permanent members.
Jul/2005: The G-4 presents the resolution project A/59/L.64 (6 new permanent seats and 4 new non-permanent seats, without using veto until the review conference in 15 years).
Mar/2005: Definition of the common African position on the reform (“Ezulwini Consensus”), which asks for the expansion of the Council in both categories of members, with the extension of the veto to the new permanent members.
Mar/2005: UNSG report endorses proposals of the report from the High Level Panel; warning that the lack of consensus shall not be used for justifying inaction.
Dec/2004: High Level Panel report presents two reform proposals of the UNSC: model A proposes 6 new permanent seats without right to veto and 3 new non-permanent ones; model B foresees 8 seats in a new category of members (with mandate of four renewable years) and one more member in the current non-permanent member category.
Sep/2004: Heads of State and Government of Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan created the G-4, with the purpose of promoting the UNSC reform under the expansion in both members category.
Sep/2003: UNSG convenes the “High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change”, integrated by 16 eminent personalities, including Ambassador João Clemente Baena Soares.